United States of America has a democratic political system with two major parties: Democratic and Republican. This research paper will provide the insight on the social and cultural characteristics of both Republican and Democratic loyalists as well as uncommitted middle. Many changes occurred in the behavior of American electorate since 1952, however, some trends remain today. The existence of the Electoral College affects the campaigns of the presidential candidates. This paper will also analyse the concerns of citizens with this system and whether it is beneficial for candidates and reveals the true choice of the population.
It is hard to identify social social and cultural characteristics of Republicans and Democrats. It seems that the question is not in social grouping but in agreement with party ideology. According to recent research, African Americans tend to be Democrats, this is one of the trend noticed for many years now. However, for other groups, the connection between social identity and party identification is very low. (see tables in appendix).
For example, most Jews identify with Democratic party because of their liberal policy preferences, but not because of social belonging. They value possibility for innovative development and changes in economy and society. Most evangelical Christians identify with the Republican party because of their conservative policy preferences. They value traditions and customs developed for many years and are slow for making a change.
Groups such as poor, union members and Jews are among those who will most likely be associated with Democratic party. While wealthy white Protestants and the religious right will be associated with Republicans. However, there are always some exclusions. The conservative preferences stand for Republicans, while liberal changes are characteristics of Democrats.
In addition, recent researches prove that party identification is stable and does not change very often. The Republican loyalists Protestants valuing traditions, tend to identify themselves with this party for a lasting time for many generations. Family traditions, the set life style and family business continuation are cultural characteristics of Republicans. Democrats, on the contrary favor changes in all fields of life. They are more open to change job positions and move to another place, providing more freedom of choice to their children. Today, Republicans have more support from American citizens.
There are factors which do not influence party identity and which are independent on social grouping or cultural values. For several decades there have been little change at both aggregate and individual level on party identification. The state of economy and performance of the president does not change or determine party loyalty. However, party loyalties have a powerful influence on citizens' positions in key issues and voting decisions. The most important notion is that...