Functionalism And Marxism. A Critical Evaluation

1396 words - 6 pages

Functionalism and Marxism. A Critical Evaluation

During the 18th and 19th centuries, political and industrial revolutions coupled with a philosophical movement which promoted a new scientific way of thinking (`The Enlightenment'), heralded the advent of several new scientific disciplines. These social sciences attempted to explain the rapid and fundamental changes which were shattering traditional ways of life in Britain and Europe. Sociology emerged as one of these innovative areas and sought to analyse the nature of society and the complexities within it using collective theories and perspectives. The construction of a sociological perspective can best be illustrated by the application of several fundamental questions, the responses and explanations of which, produce an insight into why there are differences of opinion.

Functionalism and Marxism are two of the most influential perspectives within Sociology, and emerged in response to modernity. They are both structuralist theories, the individual is viewed with less importance than the social structure or organisation of society itself. They both advocate the idea that society can be improved through the application of human knowledge. However there are major contradictions in their explanations of society.

The first major functionalist thinker was Emile Durkheim (1858-1917), although subsequently there have been numerous other significant contributors in the establishment of functionalist rationale, the most notable being Talcott Parsons (1902-1979). Functionalism theorises that society is made up of various social institutions, a social institution is a group of people organised for a specific purpose or purposes. The family is viewed as the cornerstone of society and is inherently involved with socialisation, a key process through which culture is learned and acceptable behaviour defined. Functionalists seem to suggest that societies have rules of behaviour prior to the existence of its members, therefore leaving the enigma of who decides the functional characteristics of a society if it's not the members themselves. This is a problem called reification. Functionalists treat society as a thing by endowing it with the ability to think and act intentionally. The analogous comparison by which the operation of society and the functions of the social institutions is likened to a biological organism, illustrates the idea that all parts of society have their function and are interdependent on each other for the good of society as a whole. Sickness in the living organism would be likened to a loss of social equilibrium, an abnormal state for a society that is normally in balance. Functionalists believe that the balance is achieved through a consensus- the majority of people in society having the same moral values. Marxism however has contradictory views and rejects the idea that society is based on value consensus for the benefit of all. Instead society is acknowledged as being...

Find Another Essay On Functionalism and Marxism. A Critical Evaluation

Essay Title: Compare And Contrast Functionalism And Marxism

1173 words - 5 pages Functionalism and Marxism are both known to be structural perspectives, due to the fact that they concentrate on a group of people rather than on the individual himself. Although very similar the two are different in very distinct ways, in fact Functionalism falls under the sub-heading of consensus structuralism, while Marxism falls under the sub-heading of conflict structuralism. As the sub-headings suggest they may be considered as opposites

Critical Thinking -A Personal Response and Evaluation

1597 words - 6 pages PAGE PAGE 10 Critical Thinking- A Personal Response AbstractWe will compare and contrast the differing definitions of critical thinking and provide personal evaluation of how cognitive development, logic, and emotionality relate to our ability to think critically. An agreement to define critical thinking between scholars of philosophy and psychology remains difficult because of their differing thoughts on the subject matter. Critical thinking

A Critical Look at Marxism in Literature

1131 words - 5 pages A Critical Look at MarxismMarxism is a political and economic philosophy originating with one, Karl Marx. Karl Marx was a German philosopher who lived in the nineteenth century. Marx outlined that the capitalist economic system is designed to keep the upper classes (the bourgeoisie) wealthy, while at the same time the lower classes (the proletariat) remain trapped at the bottom of a biased construct. "Marx defined ideology as 'the ruling ideas

A Critical Evaluation of An Inspector Calls

1166 words - 5 pages An Inspector Calls Critical Evaluation - The main goal of this essay is to write about the role of Inspector Goole in the play. Other details will also going into consideration. An Inspector Calls Critical Evaluation The main goal of this essay is to write about the role of Inspector Goole in the play. Other details will also going into consideration. An Inspector Calls is a play wrote by J.B Priestly. The first scene shows a

A Critical Evaluation of Small Business

9577 words - 38 pages A Critical evaluation of small business in South wale and UKAbstractTraditional training separates learning from the work context in which the newly acquired knowledge is to be applied. This requires the worker themselves to apply imparted theoretical knowledge to knowledge in practice, a process that is grossly inefficient. The ENRICH approach builds on organisational learning theory to intertwine working and learning. The ENRICH methodology

Resource evaluation, notes and critical engagement

747 words - 3 pages Task 2: - Resource evaluation, notes and critical engagementThe method that I used for searching of resources will preferably through the sequence of first finding through academic books, then resources from the library and lastly from the internet. I always start researching from academic books because I believe that it is a more reliable and related resources to the question of the essay, or else the academic textbook won't even be given to us

In this essay I will describe two sociological perspectives; I will also explain the similarities and differences between two of the main theories functionalism and Marxism

882 words - 4 pages Functionalism and Marxism are traced back to theories adopted by sociologists in the nineteenth century. Marxism came from the German philosopher Karl Marx (1818-1883), whereas Functionalism was originally derived by Auguste Compte (1798-1857). It was then developed further by Emile Durkheim (1858-1917).Functionalist theories portray society as a structured system, which have a set of interconnected parts (or units) which together form a whole

Critical Evaluation of Taylorism and Fordism

1465 words - 6 pages Taylorism is also known as scientific management which named after Frederick W. Taylor. It is a production efficiency methodology that breaks works into small and simple segments which can be easily analysed and taught. Taylorism was first mentioned in 1920s and 20 years later. Henry Ford, who was the founder of the Ford Motor Company, used the scientific management in the form of assembly line production as a method on the T-model car

Critical Evaluation on “Leadership and Creativity: Understanding Leadership from a Creative Problem-Solving Perspective”

2095 words - 8 pages analyzes the research results in order to make a critical evaluation of the literature (Kothari, 2005). In another word, the research is based on literature review. Thus, the advantage of this strategy is to gather knowledge by review other people’s work. It allows the writer to describe, compare, contrast and evaluate other people’s theories and arguments on the relevant topic on behalf of validity. However, the research strategy is focusing on

A CRITICAL EVALUATION ON THE CORPORATE COMMUNICATIONS OF MCDONALD’S

3103 words - 12 pages MKIB372A CRITICAL EVALUATION ON THE CORPORATE COMMUNICATIONS OF MCDONALD'STABLE OF CONTENTSPage1. Executive Summary 32. Introduction 43. Internal Communications 53.1. Intranet system 53.2. Employee magazine 83.3 Other internal methods 104. External Communications 114.1. Official website 124.2. Social media 164.2.1 Facebook 165. Recommendations 206. References 22 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThe report provides a critical evaluation on several

A Critical Evaluation of Assisi by Norman MacCaig

1349 words - 5 pages A Critical Evaluation of Assisi Q: Choose a poem in which the poet has put across a definite point of view. By close reference to the poetic techniques used, show how successful the poet has been in making you share his/ her point of view. “Assisi” by Norman MacCaig is an intriguing and thought-provoking poem, which has put across a definite point of view to me which I believe is that all people should be treated equally and we should

Similar Essays

A Critical Outline Of The Main Features Of Functionalism, Symbolic Interactionism And Marxism

1397 words - 6 pages features.The Functionalist sees society as built up and working like the human body, made up of interrelated parts, which function for or contribute to the maintenance of society as a whole. (Cited: Browne.K. 'Introducing Sociology', 2002). Functionalists are concerned with how the different parts of society contribute towards the whole. All members of society are imposed with common values and norms. Marxism sees the overall structure of society

Functionalism And Marxism Essay

2388 words - 10 pages In the history of anthropology and sociology, there have been many different social theories. Often these theories are influential for a period of time and then lose popularity once a new, more seductive theory is established. Marxism and functionalism are two examples of social theories that made a grand impact on the anthropological and sociological fields, but have since faded from the forefront. Marxism was established by Karl Marx in the

Functionalism Vs Marxism : A Family Case Study

617 words - 2 pages particular institution is evidence for its necessity to society. Based on a study of 250 societies Murdock concluded that the nuclear family, i.e. a family consisting of a father, mother and their children, is the universal human grouping. Moreover, he also stated that this grouping satisfies both the physical and psychological needs of the members which could not be met by other societal structures. The family unit is thereby viewed by

The Pros And Cons Of Functionalism And Marxism

2816 words - 11 pages . Works Cited Hagan, J. 1980. The legislation of crime and delinquency: A review of theory, method, and research. Law and Society Review, pp. 603--628. Hart, E. 2013. “Marxism and Radical and Critical Criminology”, [Lecture], Liverpool Hope University, unpublished Historylearningsite.co.uk. 2014. Functionalism. [online] Available at: http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/functionalism.htm [Accessed: 10 Jan 2014]. Historylearningsite.co.uk
Offroad Wood Transport Truck Driver 2018 | Jon Favreau | 进击的巨人