Advertising is increasingly important in our modern life (Munusamy & Wong, 2007). It was because it can use to transmit a message to a great number of audiences easily (Al-Boloshi, 2010). Hence, many researchers have done their research about advertising. For example, there are many researchers test about the entertainment, informativeness, and credibility of mobile advertising (Haghirian & Madberger, 2005; Chowdhury et al., 2010; Al-Boloshi, 2010). Nonetheless, the rapid development on internet has made the usage of online advertising frequently move upward (Yunos, Gao, & Shim, 2003). Hence, this has intensified the interest of researchers to do relevant studies about advertising.
While many researchers have been dedicated to examining advertising, the essential of attitude towards advertising has also been recognized. Attitude towards advertising is known as a vital concept to identify the effectiveness of advertising (Lutz, 1985; Mehta & Purvis, 1995; Mehta, 2000; Ling et al., 2010). The impact on attitude towards advertising which in turn can also influence behavioral intention (Wolin et al., 2002). Besides, as the precursor of attitude towards advertising, beliefs about advertising is also important to investigate (Tan & Chia, 2007). As another precursor, personal values are adopted to investigate in this study (Kopanidis, 2009). Therefore, this study is set up to investigate the antecedent and outcome of attitude towards advertising.
2.2 Attitude towards Advertising
Attitude is the best evaluation tools towards objects, people, and issues (Solomon, Marshall, & Stuart, 2008). In the simplest way, attitude is a mindset that enables to affect a person behavior or their action on a certain situation, which the actions are based on their past experiences. Nonetheless, it can also understand as the past experience organizing attitude, and which in turn it affects individual responses (Pickens, 2009). Attitude is also known as hypothetical constructs because it cannot directly be observed. Therefore, some specific indirect indicators such as verbal expressions are used to measure attitudes (Zikmund, Babin, Carr, & Griffin, 2010). In this study, there are several statements from Pollay and Mital (1993) were used to measure attitudes.
Furthermore, as the indicator to estimate the effectiveness of advertising, attitude towards advertising was employed to identify (Lutz, 1985; Mehta and Purvis, 1995; Mehta, 2000). In the mean time, it can also influence the perspective of a consumer to an advertisement (Mehta, 2000). For example, their favorable or unfavorable responses can be measured through attitude towards advertising (MacKenzie & Lutz, 1989). In the past empirical studies, there are many researchers reported unfavorable attitude towards advertising (Alwitt & Prabhaker, 1994; Mittal, 1994); and there is also a study stated that during 1960s and 1970s, there was a negative trend about the public...